Installation Guidelines for Tufted & Woven Wools

The importance of understanding the construction of the product is as important as the installation itself. Understanding how to manipulate the product when needed to have it conform to its surroundings is essential.

Acclimation is a very important step in achieving this goal. Carpet should be cut and laid in the area it is to be installed, for a minimum of 24 to 48 hours before installation. Always add 3 inches to each cut, and when patterns are involved 3 inches plus a full pattern should be added.

Tufted Wools

Stretch-in Installation:

1. Tufted wools install differently then synthetic carpets, from pad to the amount of stretch to be given to the product. The amount of stretch on tufted wools is 1% in the width and 1 ½% in the length depending on the room size. Qualified installers know the amount of stretch by the pressure they put on the handle of the power stretcher ~ the power stretcher is mandatory ! When stretching across a seam there should be less stretch than if there was no seam, to lessen the amount of seam peaking. Rooms 29’ and over, it is required that you use architectural tack strip, or double up standard tack strip. Pins should never show through the carpet. To avoid pins showing through, you can cut the selvage off the side of the carpet and lay it across the tack strip to lower the pins.

1.2 All seams must be sealed with latex seam sealer to encapsulate both the primary and secondary backing. Care must be taken as to not get latex on the face yarn. Latex on the face yarn will draw dirt to the seam and cause a dark line to appear throughout the seam. Important: The sealing of seams will help eliminate delamination and help with the tuft bind.

1.3 Pad: The proper pad for tufted wools with jute backing is most important, Petroleum based pad should never be used. This type of pad will cause wrinkles, bubbles, delamination, and seam separation over time. The pad recommended for this carpet is wool pad, felt pad or Healthier Choice pad (frothed polyurethane foam “Greenguard”).

a. Seam peaking: To repair a peaking seam you must empty the room of all contents; pull the carpet up back to the seam area, to where you can see the seam tape. Remove excess paper from the tape, use a light weight sand paper and rough up the tape. Next cut out the pad approximately 1 ft. on each side of the seam, pull the pad up and then glue it back down. Next glue the carpet to that area of the pad. Reinstall the carpet and add weight to the seam area, and allow the pressure to stay for 2 – 3 hours, this will allow the seam to lay flat. ( to eliminate call backs you can use this procedure when installing any low profile carpet). The pad should be a pad used for double stick installation, or have a scrim and plastic, so the glue does not soak into the pad. Anything less than high solids ( 68%) glue would have too much moisture and cause the jute to shrink.

Direct glue and double stick installation:

2. Direct glue installation with jute backing should be glued with a high solids adhesive, using a 1/8”x1/8”x1/8” U notch trowel. The carpet should be rolled both ways after installation with a 75 lb. roller. CRI standards should be followed for floor prep. Atmospheric conditions should also be considered in the amount of time needed for the glue to set up. The recommended pad to be used for double stick installation is a 21lb. rubber slab pad or Healthier Choice pad – felt pads or wool pads are NOT recommended for this type of installation. It is also recommended that the type of carpet for this installation should have a jute backing or a 10 pic action back or woven carpet. Proper notch trowel is also very important – for pad to the floor, a 1/16”x1/16”x1/16” square notch trowel should be used with pressure sensitive glue. For the carpet to the pad, smooth back carpet use a 1/8”x1/16”x1/8” U notch trowel. For rough back carpet use a 1/8”x3/16”x1/8” U notch trowel with a high solids glue ( approx. 68% solids). The carpet should be rolled both ways after installation with a 35 to 50 lb. roller.

On a double glue installation, it is recommended that you use a seaming iron, rather than not. If you are using the Kool Glide iron, make sure you cut the flange off of each side of the tape before using it.

For both direct glue and double stick installation the following restrictions apply, there should be no:

  1. foot traffic for 24 hours
  2. wheel carts for 72 hours
  3. vacuuming for 72 hours
  4. cleaning with water for 30 days

3.  It is important to have good ventilation. Ventilation should begin 48 hours prior to installation, during installation and 72 hours after installation.

Standards for Printed Carpet ( Sprayed on print)

Seam Prep for printed pattern loop pile carpet:

In most cases printed patterns do not alien with the loop pile carpet, making it impossible for the installer to follow a row for a seam, and keep the pattern on. Solution: Do not row cut from the top, but from the back of the carpet If you cannot run a row next to the pattern, you must use your razor blade knife to make one inch cuts next to the pattern, every 3 feet. Then fold the carpet over and use your straight edge to line up against the cuts you made ( next to your pattern). With your straight edge cut through the backing but NOT the face yarn. At this point the face yarn should be connecting the backings together.  Next, use your scissors and cut the yarn at the base of the side you are going to discard.  On your seam side use latex and run a bead at the base of the yarn carefully folding the yarn over into the latex to keep the integrity of the loop that has been cut. Use this same procedure on the second piece that you will be seaming onto. This procedure will keep the loops and the pattern intact. This is a slow and tedious process, but the result are well worth it.

** If you have any questions, please call NFIC at 770  720-4537 **

The importance of understanding the construction of the product is as important as the installation itself. Understanding how to manipulate the product when needed to have it conform to its surroundings is essential.

Acclimation is a very important step in achieving this goal. Carpet should be cut and laid in the area it is to be installed, for a minimum of 24 to 48 hours before installation. Always add 3 inches to each cut, and when patterns are involved 3 inches plus a full pattern should be added.

AXMINSTER

Axminster carpet is produced on a Jacquard loom. the loom operation simulates hand weaving because each tuft is individually inserted into the pile. It is possible for every end to be of a different color with unlimited scope of design. Generally, Axminster carpets can be woven with up to eight frames with the possibility of planting a few others. Complex and abstract patterns executed through use of color are possible.

Axminster carpeting can be more readily identified than any other carpeting. The back of the carpeting can be recognized by a ribbed like appearance running in its width. This is produced by a double weft-shot across the carpet. The stiffness of the carpet allows it to be rolled lengthwise not widthwise. This is due to the double weft shot and to the use of heavy latex sizing on the backing ( which also obscures the double shot).

Axminster’s always have a cut pile surface and usually an even-height pile. Performance capability depends on pile weight and density, fiber type and construction.

An Axminster using a lower number of construction units, but with proportionately higher yarn weight, may give the same serviceability and resiliency as a carpet with the higher construction unit count. On the other hand a carpet constructed with 4 or 5 rows per inch and a 289 pitch, without increasing the yarn weight may result in lower quality. These facts emphasize that evaluating only one construction detail alone is not sufficient to arrive at a meaningful conclusion regarding carpet quality. Construction costs for Axminster carpet are often lower than that of Wilton’s.

Installation Guide lines for Axminster Carpet:

Stretch-in Installation:

1.Axminster carpet has no stretch in the width, only in the length. For the width just snug the carpet onto the tack strip. Tack strip to be used for Axminster is architectural strip with 3 rows of pins or “Tri Tack” with 3 rows of pins.

1.2 Tack strip must be a minimum of one inch (25mm) wide and 1/4 inch (6mm) thick. Architectural strip with 3 rows of pins, or two conventional strips with two rows of pins each, must be used for carpet with a heavly-latexed backs, for most woven and Berber-style carpet, and for any carpet in rooms exceeding 30 feet (9m) in length or width. To prevent possible injury to building occupants, the pins on tack strip must not protrude through carpet being installed.  To avoid pins showing through, you can cut the selvage off the side of the carpet and lay it across the tack strip to lower the pins.

2.  A firm pad should be used, we recommend a wool 1/4″ thick pad ( 6.5 lb. density ), felt 1/4″ thickness (32oz.),  rubber pad 1/4″ thickness  (21lb.) or Healthier Choice -0.250 thickness  (frothed polyurethane foam, Greenguard) note: A soft pad will create looseness and give no support to the carpet. It is not recommended to use masking tape, due to the paper drying out over time, it is also not recommended to use duct tape because over time it will cause an unevenness from the pad wearing out on each side of the tape. ( note: this is the reason it is recommended to use duct tape on stair nosing, to keep the pad from wearing in this high traffic area.) Pad should be glued at seams, not taped or stapled.

2.1 To seam Axminster there are 3 methods to use: hand sewing, Kool Glide iron or hot melt iron with premium seam tape. All methods require sealing with latex. Seam sealing is mandatory !

2.2 Prior to seaming, both trimmed edges of the carpet sections to be joined must be sealed with an appropriate seam sealer. Latex seam sealer.

Direct Glue Installation:

3. Direct glue – the minimum trowel notch for direct gluing of Axminster carpet is 1/8″x1/8″x1/8″ U notch trowel. Prior to installation some of the following conditions should be considered; Carpet must be installed when the indoor temperature is between 65-95 degrees F (18-35 degrees C) with a maximum relative humidity of 65%. If ambient temperatures are outside these perimeters, the installation must not begin until the HVAC system is operational and these conditions are maintained for at least 48 hours before, during and 72 hours after completion.

3.1 Before making an adhesive adhered installation, the owner or GC, or their designated testing agent, must submit to the flooring contractor a written report on the vapor emission level and the surface alkalinity of the concrete subflooring.

4. Moisture – Concrete floors, even with adequate curing time, can present an unacceptable moisture condition by allowing excessive amounts of moisture vapor to pass through to the surface. This can be a problem even on suspended concrete floors. Test all concrete floors for moisture emission rates using an anhydrous calcium chloride moisture test kit. This quantitative test method must be conducted carefully in strict compliance with ASTM Test Method F 1869. Moisture emission rate is measured in pounds of moisture over a 1000 sq. ft. area during a 24 hours period. Because calcium chloride testing requires a minimum of 60 hours to conduct, proper installation planning is required.  As a general guideline, an emission rate of 3.0 lbs. (1.4kg) or less is acceptable unless otherwise specified by the carpet manufacture.

5. Alkalinity – A pH range of 7-9 is satisfactory for alkalinity; however, a reading above 9 requires corrective measures. Perform testing in accordance with ASTM Standard Practice F-710; or consult the adhesive manufacture for recommended testing and corrective procedures.

6. Adhesive installations – The owner or GC must have concrete subfloors tested to determine the moisture emission rate and surface pH prior to installation. Caution: Any concrete floor, even when adequately cured and dry, can allow moisture vapor to pass through to its surface. Depending upon the type of carpet and method of installation, the moisture emission rate greatly influences the long term success of an installation. The use of a properly installed, uncompromised, approved moisture membrane is essential in preventing moisture migration into and through a concrete slab. ( Ref. ASTM F 10)

7. Relaxing/Conditioning Carpet – To minimize wrinkling and buckling, and to facilitate the installation, it is highly recommended that the carpet be unrolled and allowed to relax in the installation area for a minimum of 24 hours at a temperature between 65-95 degrees F (18-35 degrees C). Carpet must be adequately protected from soil, dust, moisture and other contaminants. To facilitate relaxation, pre-cutting carpet is recommended.

8. Ventilation – During installation, maintain fresh air ventilation using exhaust fans, and by operating the ventilation system at full capacity. Always exhaust air to the outside and avoid re-circulation. After installation, maintain fresh air ventilation for 48-72 hours at normal room temperature by operating the ventilation or exhaust fan system at full capacity. Open doors and windows, if possible. These procedures help exhaust, dissipate and eliminate lingering orders from the installation.

9. Primers – Using primers on floor surfaces generally is not required except for sanded wood sheet products, dusty, porous or acoustical concrete surfaces. Priming cannot overcome moisture vapor emissions and must not be used for that purpose. They must be compatible with adhesives, which should be applied only after the primer is cured. Where lightweight or acoustical concrete subfloor is present, refer to manufacturers recommendations for the proper installation procedure to use before the carpet is installed.

10. Liquid adhesive removers – There are a number of liquid adhesive removers available that effectively remove existing adhesive residue from sub-floors; however, there is evidence that some products may adversely affect the new adhesive or the new floor covering. Residues left in or on the concrete slab may cause failure of the new floor adhesive.

11. Sweeping compounds – These compounds may leave residue that interferes with adhesive bonding. They must not be used prior to adhesive application. Vacuum dusty areas instead.

12. Carpet layout – Layout the carpet according to the seaming diagram. Carpet must be cut 3-4 inches longer than the area measurement. Where applicable, allow for pattern repeat. Align all carpet breadths to their proper position and trim seams.

13. Adhesive application – The floor adhesive must be spread uniformly over the subfloor with an appropriate trowel, leaving ridges of sufficient height to achieve full and complete coverage of the substrate and carpet backing, including penetration into the backing’s deepest recesses. Trowel notches wear down during use. Maintain a clean and properly notched trowel throughout the installation process. After sufficient open time, the carpet must be pressed into the adhesive and rolled with an appropriate roller as specified. Caution: Bond failure most often is caused by: inadequate adhesive application from incorrect trowel notch size and/or trowel notch configuration * improper adhesive selection or quality * incorrect open time * residual curing and parting compounds * moisture-related problem * premature traffic or cleaning before adhesives have adequately cured.

14. Open time – Appropriate open time varies depending upon environmental conditions, subfloor porosity, backing system and adhesive type. Refer to the adhesive manufacturer for recommendations regarding open time.

15. Seam adhesive (sealer) – An appropriate direct-glue seam adhesive must be applied to the edges trimmed for seaming and cover the thickness of both the primary and secondary backing without contaminating face yarns. The seam adhesive is applied to the cut edge of one side only, that side being the first one placed into the floor adhesive. When the edges are abutted to form the seam, and while the seam adhesive still is transferable, this seals the first edge as well as the second.

16. Rolling – After sufficient adhesive application and open time, the carpet must be pressed into the adhesive and rolled with an appropriate roller. Rolling must be performed with the lightest roller that achieves full and complete coverage of the substrate and carpet backing, including penetration into the backing’s deepest recesses.

17. All seams should be sealed with appropriate seam sealer. The roller to be used for direct glue should be no more than and no less than 75 lbs.

Double Glue Installation:

18. Relaxing/Condition carpet – Site conditions, environmental and ventilation conditions become even more important when performing double-glue-down installations. In double-glue installations, a separate cushion is adhered to the subfloor and the carpet is glued to the cushion.

19. Cushion installation – Cushion must be installed in the longest continuous lengths possible with consideration to traffic patterns and carpet seam placement. Cushion seams must be at a right angle (90 degrees) to carpet seams or offset at least six inches. Cushion seams must be butted without compression, leaving no gaps.

19.1  Make sure that the glue has time to off gas and set up. Tacky to the touch, but not transferred to the finger.

19.2 The recommended pad to be used for double stick installation is a 21lb. rubber slab pad or Healthier Choice pad – felt pads or wool pads are NOT recommended for this type of installation.

20. Carpet layout – Layout the carpet according to the seaming diagram. Carpet must be cut 3-4 inches longer than the area measurement. Where applicable, allow for pattern repeat. Align all carpet breadths to their proper position and trim seams. Care must be taken to avoid cutting into cushion under seams.

21. Trowel size for double glue installation, is as follows: Pad to floor using pressure sensitive glue is 1/16”x1/16”x1/16” square notch trowel. Carpet to pad with a smooth back carpet use a 1/8”x1/16”x1/8” U notch trowel. Carpet to pad with a rough back carpet use a 1/8”x3/16”x1/8” U notch trowel.

22. The proper roller recommended for a double glue installation is a 35-50 lb. roller. Axminster carpet should be rolled in the length only. After 2-3 hours, the carpet should be rolled again.

On a double glue installation, it is recommended that you use a seaming iron, rather than not. If you are using the Kool Glide iron, make sure you cut the flange off of each side of the tape before using it.

Understanding Carpet Manufacturing Tolerances on Pattern Carpet:

23. A successful patterned carpet installation requires a thorough understanding of patterned carpet characteristics by designers, specifier’s, and all others involved with the carpet selection and installation. Carpet is a textile fabric subject to inevitable process variations, which are more critical when patterns are involved. Most manufacturers provide established tolerances and specific installation instructions for their patterned goods, although most do not guarantee exact pattern match. Skilled responsible and competent craftsmen, who are experienced in the installation of patterned carpet, can effectively make adjustments within manufacturer tolerances to provide a successful installation. To assist this process, manufacturer tolerances must be clearly understood, communicated and agreed upon by all parties prior to the specification, bid, purchase and installation. There always must be an understanding about the additional carpet that must be allowed for pattern match.

23.1. Factors affecting an acceptable pattern match on the job site included, but are not limited to: the method of installation, the condition and levelness of the floor and the type of carpet backing system selected. It is imperative that all parties agree upon realistic levels of expectation before the carpet is installed.

24. Installation of pattered carpet requires more time and expertise often requiring the use of a power stretcher and additional staffing, this affecting the cost of installation.

25. Pattern size selection – Selecting larger patterns will facilitate matching ease.

26. Roll sequence – Sequence carpet cuts working from the longest measured repeat gradually down the shortest repeat within the dye lot. Roll sequencing information is available from the carpet manufacturer.

27. Pattern adjustment – Pattern adjustment during installation is possible and should be anticipated.

28. Pattern alignment – Match the pattern at the midpoint of the seams length. Work from the seam’s midpoint to the seam ends. Bring the pattern into register using appropriate tools that might include: power stretcher * knee kicker * dead man * “dry” line * stay nails * crab stretcher.

29. Curing adhesives – It is highly recommended that traffic over field-applied adhesive installations be restricted for a minimum of 24-48 hours to allow adhesives to cure properly. Premature trafficking can cause installation failure. Restrict carpet exposure to water from cleaning or other sources for a minimum of 30 days.

30. Materials for protection – If required to protect the finished floor covering from soil or paint, or if additional work is to be done after the installation, cover it with a non-staining building material paper. Protect the installation from rolling traffic by using sheets of hardboard or plywood in potentially affected area. Caution: Do not place plastic sheeting over any carpet installation because it may present a slip hazard and may leave residues that result in rapid soiling after removal. In addition, it may trap moisture, which may promote mold growth, and retard adhesive curing.

31. Maintain temperature – Do not allow the temperature of indoor carpeted areas to fall below 50 degrees F (10 degrees C), regardless of the age of installation.

** If you have any questions, please call NFIC at 770  720-4537 **

WILTON

Wilton is one of the three major woven carpets. Wilton is processed on a Jacquard loom which has a special mechanism to form patterns in the surface pile and at the same time implant some of the pile yarn on the back. That means all the yarn used does not appear on the face pile. The Wilton loom utilizes frames from which spools of yarn are drawn into the loom to form the pile. If a five frame carpet is desired, yarns of five different colors could be fed into the loom. This flexibility of the loom is so extensive that literally dozens of colors are possible to weave in a single operation.

An interesting feature of the Jacquard system for Wilton is a punch card system, ( similar to a computer card ) for selecting the pile yarn for the carpet face. The cards are laced together and suspended in the loom exactly as the pattern is to appear on the carpet face. The card determines which color yarns are to be lifted to the face and which are to be buried in the carpet body. There may be several strands of yarn beneath the face for every one showing, depending on the number of frames of color used. The loom can be adjusted to allow the “planted” yarns to show through to the surface for special effects.

The addition of each frame or color to a Wilton will add more yarn to the carpet pile. A five frame Wilton will have more weight than a three frame Wilton of the same yarn size and density. The performance capability of a Wilton depends in great measure on the pile yarn weight, its height and yarn count.

The pile density is controlled by the pitch ( number of warp lines of yarn in a 27 inch width) by wires per inch ( number of weft shots per inch, and by yarn count, weight thickness of a single strand of fiber ) and pile or wire height. A high quality Wilton may be made with 252 pitch and 8 to 10 wires per inch, with a lighter or heavier yarn to provide density.

Other combinations of weight, density and pile height provide different carpet with varying performance capabilities. A dense low pile, of a given weight and construction, though not feel as comfortable under foot.

The loom will also weave Wilton’s with sharply delineated sculptured and embossed textures. The pattern effect is achieved by varying the pile height, by using different wire heights, by using a combination of cut and uncut pile, and by using a combination of different yarns.

Installation Guide lines for Wilton Carpet:

Stretch-in Installation:

1.Wilton carpet can be stretched in both directions.  Tack strip to be used for Wilton is architectural strip with 3 rows of pins or “Tri Tack” with 3 rows of pins.

1.2 Tack strip must be a minimum of one inch (25mm) wide and 1/4 inch (6mm) thick. Architectural strip with 3 rows of pins, or two conventional strips with two rows of pins each, must be used for carpet with heavly-latexed backs, for most woven and Berber-style carpet, and for any carpet in rooms exceeding 30 feet (9m) in length or width. To prevent possible injury to building occupants, the pins on tack strip must not protrude through carpet being installed. To avoid pins showing through, you can cut the selvage off the side of the carpet and lay it across the tack strip to lower the pins.

2.  A firm pad should be used, we recommend a wool 1/4″ thick pad ( 6.5 lb. density ), felt 1/4″ thickness (32oz.),  rubber pad 1/4″ thickness  (21lb.) or Healthier Choice -0.250 thickness  (frothed polyurethane foam, Greenguard).   note: A soft pad will create looseness and give no support to the carpet. It is not recommended to use masking tape, due to the paper drying out over time, it is also not recommended to use duct tape because over time it will cause an unevenness from the pad wearing out on each side of the tape. ( note: this is the reason it is recommended to use duct tape on stair nosing, to keep the pad from wearing in this high traffic area.) Pad should be glued at seams, not taped or stapled.

2.1 To seam Wilton there are 3 methods to use: hand sewing, Kool Glide iron or hot melt iron with premium seam tape. All methods require sealing with latex. Seam sealing is mandatory !

2.2 Prior to seaming, both trimmed edges of the carpet sections to be joined must be sealed with an appropriate seam sealer. Latex seam sealer.

Direct Glue Installation:

3. Direct glue – the minimum trowel notch for direct gluing of  Wilton carpet is 1/8″x1/8″x1/8″ U notch trowel. Prior to installation some of the following conditions should be considered; Carpet must be installed when the indoor temperature is between 65-95 degrees F (18-35 degrees C) with a maximum relative humidity of 65%. If ambient temperatures are outside these perimeters, the installation must not begin until the HVAC system is operational and these conditions are maintained for at least 48 hours before, during and 72 hours after completion.

3.1 Before making an adhesive adhered installation, the owner or GC, or their designated testing agent, must submit to the flooring contractor a written report on the vapor emission level and the surface alkalinity of the concrete subflooring.

4. Moisture – Concrete floors, even with adequate curing time, can present an unacceptable moisture condition by allowing excessive amounts of moisture vapor to pass through to the surface. This can be a problem even on suspended concrete floors. Test all concrete floors for moisture emission rates using an anhydrous calcium chloride moisture test kit. This quantitative test method must be conducted carefully in strict compliance with ASTM Test Method F 1869. Moisture emission rate is measured in pounds of moisture over a 1000 sq. ft. area during a 24 hours period. Because calcium chloride testing requires a minimum of 60 hours to conduct, proper installation planning is required.  As a general guideline, an emission rate of 3.0 lb.s (1.4kg) or less is acceptable unless otherwise specified by the carpet manufacture.

5. Alkalinity – A pH range of 7-9 is satisfactory for alkalinity; however, a reading above 9 requires corrective measures. Perform testing in accordance with ASTM Standard Practice F-710; or consult the adhesive manufacture for recommended testing and corrective procedures.

6. Adhesive installations – The owner or GC must have concrete subfloors tested to determine the moisture emission rate and surface pH prior to installation. Caution: Any concrete floor, even when adequately cured and dry, can allow moisture vapor to pass through to its surface. Depending upon the type of carpet and method of installation, the moisture emission rate greatly influences the long term success of an installation. The use of a properly installed, uncompromised, approved moisture membrane is essential in preventing moisture migration into and through a concrete slab. ( Ref. ASTM F 10)

7. Relaxing/Conditioning Carpet – To minimize wrinkling and buckling, and to facilitate the installation, it is highly recommended that the carpet be unrolled and allowed to relax in the installation area for a minimum of 24 hours at a temperature between 65-95 degrees F (18-35 degrees C). Carpet must be adequately protected from soil, dust, moisture and other contaminants. To facilitate relaxation, pre-cutting carpet is recommended.

8. Ventilation – During installation, maintain fresh air ventilation using exhaust fans, and by operating the ventilation system at full capacity. Always exhaust air to the outside and avoid re-circulation. After installation, maintain fresh air ventilation for 48-72 hours at normal room temperature by operating the ventilation or exhaust fan system at full capacity. Open doors and windows, if possible. These procedures help exhaust, dissipate and eliminate lingering orders from the installation.

9. Primers – Using primers on floor surfaces generally is not required except for sanded wood sheet products, dusty, porous or acoustical concrete surfaces. Priming cannot overcome moisture vapor emissions and must not be used for that purpose. They must be compatible with adhesives, which should be applied only after the primer is cured. Where lightweight or acoustical concrete subfloor is present, refer to manufacturers recommendations for the proper installation procedure to use before the carpet is installed.

10. Liquid adhesive removers – There are a number of liquid adhesive removers available that effectively remove existing adhesive residue from sub-floors; however, there is evidence that some products may adversely affect the new adhesive or the new floor covering. Residues left in or on the concrete slab may cause failure of the new floor adhesive.

11. Sweeping compounds – These compounds may leave residue that interferes with adhesive bonding. They must not be used prior to adhesive application. Vacuum dusty areas instead.

12. Carpet layout – Layout the carpet according to the seaming diagram. Carpet must be cut 3-4 inches longer than the area measurement. Where applicable, allow for pattern repeat. Align all carpet breadths to their proper position and trim seams.

13. Adhesive application – The floor adhesive must be spread uniformly over the subfloor with an appropriate trowel, leaving ridges of sufficient height to achieve full and complete coverage of the substrate and carpet backing, including penetration into the backing’s deepest recesses. Trowel notches wear down during use. Maintain a clean and properly notched trowel throughout the installation process. After sufficient open time, the carpet must be pressed into the adhesive and rolled with an appropriate roller as specified. Caution: Bond failure most often is caused by: inadequate adhesive application from incorrect trowel notch size and/or trowel notch configuration * improper adhesive selection or quality * incorrect open time * residual curing and parting compounds * moisture-related problem * premature traffic or cleaning before adhesives have adequately cured.

14. Open time – Appropriate open time varies depending upon environmental conditions, subfloor porosity, backing system and adhesive type. Refer to the adhesive manufacturer for recommendations regarding open time.

15. Seam adhesive (sealer) – An appropriate direct-glue seam adhesive must be applied to the edges trimmed for seaming and cover the thickness of both the primary and secondary backing without contaminating face yarns. The seam adhesive is applied to the cut edge of one side only, that side being the first one placed into the floor adhesive. When the edges are abutted to form the seam, and while the seam adhesive still is transferable, this seals the first edge as well as the second.

16. Rolling – After sufficient adhesive application and open time, the carpet must be pressed into the adhesive and rolled with an appropriate roller. Rolling must be performed with the lightest roller that achieves full and complete coverage of the substrate and carpet backing, including penetration into the backing’s deepest recesses.

17. All seams should be sealed with appropriate seam sealer. The roller to be used for direct glue should be no more than and no less than 75 lbs.

Double Glue Installation:

18. Relaxing/Condition carpet – Site conditions, environmental and ventilation conditions become even more important when performing double-glue-down installations. In double-glue installations, a separate cushion is adhered to the subfloor and the carpet is glued to the cushion.

19. Cushion installation – Cushion must be installed in the longest continuous lengths possible with consideration to traffic patterns and carpet seam placement. Cushion seams must be at a right angle (90 degrees) to carpet seams or offset at least six inches. Cushion seams must be butted without compression, leaving no gaps.

19.1  Make sure that the glue has time to off gas and set up. Tacky to the touch, but not transferred to the finger.

19.2 The recommended pad to be used for double stick installation is a 21lb. rubber slab pad or Healthier Choice pad – felt pads or wool pads are NOT recommended for this type of installation.

20. Carpet layout – Layout the carpet according to the seaming diagram. Carpet must be cut 3-4 inches longer than the area measurement. Where applicable, allow for pattern repeat. Align all carpet breadths to their proper position and trim seams. Care must be taken to avoid cutting into cushion under seams.

21. Trowel size for double glue installation, is as follows: Pad to floor using pressure sensitive glue is 1/16”x1/16”x1/16” square notch trowel. Carpet to pad with a smooth back carpet use a 1/8”x1/16”x1/8” U notch trowel. Carpet to pad with a rough back carpet use a 1/8”x3/16”x1/8” U notch trowel.

22. The proper roller recommended for a double glue installation is a 35-50 lb roller. Wilton carpet should be rolled in both directions. After 2-3 hours, the carpet should be rolled again.

On a double glue installation, it is recommended that you use a seaming iron, rather than not. If you are using the Kool Glide iron, make sure you cut the flange off of each side of the tape before using it.

Understanding Carpet Manufacturing Tolerances on Pattern Carpet:

23. A successful patterned carpet installation requires a thorough understanding of patterned carpet characteristics by designers, specifier’s, and all others involved with the carpet selection and installation. Carpet is a textile fabric subject to inevitable process variations, which are more critical when patterns are involved. Most manufacturers provide established tolerances and specific installation instructions for their patterned goods, although most do not guarantee exact pattern match. Skilled responsible and competent craftsmen, who are experienced in the installation of patterned carpet, can effectively make adjustments within manufacturer tolerances to provide a successful installation. To assist this process, manufacturer tolerances must be clearly understood, communicated and agreed upon by all parties prior to the specification, bid, purchase and installation. There always must be an understanding about the additional carpet that must be allowed for pattern match.

23.1. Factors affecting an acceptable pattern match on the job site included, but are not limited to: the method of installation, the condition and levelness of the floor and the type of carpet backing system selected. It is imperative that all parties agree upon realistic levels of expectation before the carpet is installed.

24. Installation of pattered carpet requires more time and expertise often requiring the use of a power stretcher and additional staffing, this affecting the cost of installation.

25. Pattern size selection – Selecting larger patterns will facilitate matching ease.

26. Roll sequence – Sequence carpet cuts working from the longest measured repeat gradually down the shortest repeat within the dye lot. Roll sequencing information is available from the carpet manufacturer.

27. Pattern adjustment – Pattern adjustment during installation is possible and should be anticipated.

28. Pattern alignment – Match the pattern at the midpoint of the seams length. Work from the seam’s midpoint to the seam ends. Bring the pattern into register using appropriate tools that might include: power stretcher * knee kicker * dead man * “dry” line * stay nails * crab stretcher.

29. Curing adhesives – It is highly recommended that traffic over field-applied adhesive installations be restricted for a minimum of 24-48 hours to allow adhesives to cure properly. Premature trafficking can cause installation failure. Restrict carpet exposure to water from cleaning or other sources for a minimum of 30 days.

30. Materials for protection – If required to protect the finished floor covering from soil or paint, or if additional work is to be done after the installation, cover it with a non-staining building material paper. Protect the installation from rolling traffic by using sheets of hardboard or plywood in potentially affected area. Caution: Do not place plastic sheeting over any carpet installation because it may present a slip hazard and may leave residues that result in rapid soiling after removal. In addition, it may trap moisture, which may promote mold growth, and retard adhesive curing.

31. Maintain temperature – Do not allow the temperature of indoor carpeted areas to fall below 50 degrees F (10 degrees C), regardless of the age of installation.

** If you have any questions, please call NFIC at 770  720-4537 **

Carpet Edge Preparation for Floor Inserts on Velvets and Wilton’s:

When installing carpet in a recessed floor, use this method to prepare the edge of the carpet to fit snug and avoid fraying. This is for a Velvet and Wilton construction. When preparing the edge for the length or warp, you must  determine where your finishing row is, then count 2 – 3 rows out and cut your carpet at that point. Then pull your yarn, then your stuffer yarn, and then the chain stitch off each row, repeating the process until you reach the row that is going to fit into place in the inset, be sure to leave the chain stitch intact.  Leaving the weft yarns that are protruding, take your seam sealer bottle of rubber base latex and run a bead of latex on the back side of the carpet, and push the latex through the warp yarns into the chain stitch yarn with your finger. This method will protect the chain stitch and keep the face yarn from coming loose or fraying. After coating the chain stitch with the latex, allow 15 to 20 minutes for the latex to set, then using your scissors, cut the protruding jute weft yarns off, right at the base of the chain stitch, BUT leaving the chain stitch intact. This will prepare the edge to be inset next to the metal, wood or tile, depending on what your inset is. Next, prepare the end of the carpet, as you would a head seam. Again, determine where your going to stop the carpet for the inset, and at that point make a mark on the back of the carpet with a pencil all the way across the back.  Then use your knife and from the back of the carpet cut half way through the carpet, leaving the rows of yarn intact. Then use your scissors to cut the yarn, at the base of the piece of carpet that you are discarding. At that point, run a bead of latex across the base of the carpet, as if you were sealing a seam. Then affix the yarn into that latex to create the loop once again. This will keep the integrity of the loop. After the latex dries run another bead of latex in the insert where the carpet will butt up against the tile, wood or metal as if you were caulking a wall, to seal the edge. This will insure the integrity of the loop all the way around the perimeter of the insert as well as eliminating fraying and loose yarns.

***Seam preparation for Axminster, Velvet, and Wilton’s are demonstrated in the NFIC training
course.  ****

VELVET

The velvet is the simplest form of a weaving loom. There is however a wide variety of texture and color effects that can be produced with either loop or cut pile of varying heights. The loop pile is designated as round wire Velvet. A cut pile is simply a cut pile Velvet.

Velvet carpet yarns all appear on the face of the carpet. That means all the yarn is used to form the pile. Bulk is obtained by the warp, and stiffer yarns.

Velvets are known in the commercial market as quality carpet as they can be produced in good quality, with excellent tuft bind and density, in a economical manner. As the backing is woven in a tremendous variety of qualities, in small quantities, designed directly for the end use area.

A typical high quality Velvet may have 8 to 10 wires per inch and a pitch of 216 per 27 inch width.

Variations in the grades of Velvet depend on the number of weft or shot yarns used per row of tufts to bind the yarn in place. The most common is a two shot construction: that is, each row of tufts is held by two shots of the weft yarn. Velvet carpeting may be multi-colored or solid.

Installation Guide lines for Velvet Carpet:

Stretch-in Installation:

1.Velvet carpet can be stretched in both directions. Unlike Axminster, Velvets don’t stretch as much in the length as the width.  The tack strip to be used for Velvet carpet is architectural strip with 3 rows of pins or “Tri Tack” with 3 rows of pins.

1.2 Tack strip must be a minimum of one inch (25mm) wide and 1/4 inch (6mm) thick. Architectural strip with 3 rows of pins, or two conventional strips with two rows of pins each, must be used for carpet with heavly-latexed backs, for most woven and Berber-style carpet, and for any carpet in rooms exceeding 30 feet (9m) in length or width. To prevent possible injury to building occupants, the pins on tack strip must not protrude through carpet being installed. To avoid pins showing through, you can cut the selvage off the side of the carpet and lay it across the tack strip to lower the pins.

2.  A firm pad should be used, we recommend a wool 1/4″ thick pad ( 6.5 lb. density ), felt 1/4″ thickness (32oz.),  rubber pad 1/4″ thickness  (21lb.) or Healthier Choice -0.250 thickness  (frothed polyurethane foam, Greenguard) note: A soft pad will create looseness and give no support to the carpet. It is not recommended to use masking tape, due to the paper drying out over time, it is also not recommended to use duct tape because over time it will cause an unevenness from the pad wearing out on each side of the tape. ( note: this is the reason it is recommended to use duct tape on stair nosing, to keep the pad from wearing in this high traffic area.) Pad should be glued at seams, not taped or stapled.

2.1 To seam Velvet there are 3 methods to use: hand sewing, Kool Glide iron or hot melt iron with premium seam tape. All methods require sealing with latex. Seam sealing is mandatory !

2.2 Prior to seaming, both trimmed edges of the carpet sections to be joined must be sealed with an appropriate seam sealer. Latex seam sealer.

Direct Glue Installation:

3. Direct glue – the minimum trowel notch for direct gluing of  a Velvet carpet is 1/8″x1/8″x1/8″ U notch trowel. Prior to installation some of the following conditions should be considered; Carpet must be installed when the indoor temperature is between 65-95 degrees F (18-35 degrees C) with a maximum relative humidity of 65%. If ambient temperatures are outside these perimeters, the installation must not begin until the HVAC system is operational and these conditions are maintained for at least 48 hours before, during and 72 hours after completion.

3.1 Before making an adhesive adhered installation, the owner or GC, or their designated testing agent, must submit to the flooring contractor a written report on the vapor emission level and the surface alkalinity of the concrete subflooring.

4. Moisture – Concrete floors, even with adequate curing time, can present an unacceptable moisture condition by allowing excessive amounts of moisture vapor to pass through to the surface. This can be a problem even on suspended concrete floors. Test all concrete floors for moisture emission rates using an anhydrous calcium chloride moisture test kit. This quantitative test method must be conducted carefully in strict compliance with ASTM Test Method F 1869. Moisture emission rate is measured in pounds of moisture over a 1000 sq. ft. area during a 24 hours period. Because calcium chloride testing requires a minimum of 60 hours to conduct, proper installation planning is required.  As a general guideline, an emission rate of 3.0 lbs. (1.4kg) or less is acceptable unless otherwise specified by the carpet manufacture.

5. Alkalinity – A pH range of 7-9 is satisfactory for alkalinity; however, a reading above 9 requires corrective measures. Perform testing in accordance with ASTM Standard Practice F-710; or consult the adhesive manufacture for recommended testing and corrective procedures.

6. Adhesive installations – The owner or GC must have concrete subfloors tested to determine the moisture emission rate and surface pH prior to installation. Caution: Any concrete floor, even when adequately cured and dry, can allow moisture vapor to pass through to its surface. Depending upon the type of carpet and method of installation, the moisture emission rate greatly influences the long term success of an installation. The use of a properly installed, uncompromised, approved moisture membrane is essential in preventing moisture migration into and through a concrete slab. ( Ref. ASTM F 10)

7. Relaxing/Conditioning Carpet – To minimize wrinkling and buckling, and to facilitate the installation, it is highly recommended that the carpet be unrolled and allowed to relax in the installation area for a minimum of 24 hours at a temperature between 65-95 degrees F (18-35 degrees C). Carpet must be adequately protected from soil, dust, moisture and other contaminants. To facilitate relaxation, pre-cutting carpet is recommended.

8. Ventilation – During installation, maintain fresh air ventilation using exhaust fans, and by operating the ventilation system at full capacity. Always exhaust air to the outside and avoid re-circulation. After installation, maintain fresh air ventilation for 48-72 hours at normal room temperature by operating the ventilation or exhaust fan system at full capacity. Open doors and windows, if possible. These procedures help exhaust, dissipate and eliminate lingering orders from the installation.

9. Primers – Using primers on floor surfaces generally is not required except for sanded wood sheet products, dusty, porous or acoustical concrete surfaces. Priming cannot overcome moisture vapor emissions and must not be used for that purpose. They must be compatible with adhesives, which should be applied only after the primer is cured. Where lightweight or acoustical concrete subfloor is present, refer to manufacturers recommendations for the proper installation procedure to use before the carpet is installed.

10. Liquid adhesive removers – There are a number of liquid adhesive removers available that effectively remove existing adhesive residue from sub-floors; however, there is evidence that some products may adversely affect the new adhesive or the new floor covering. Residues left in or on the concrete slab may cause failure of the new floor adhesive.

11. Sweeping compounds – These compounds may leave residue that interferes with adhesive bonding. They must not be used prior to adhesive application. Vacuum dusty areas instead.

12. Carpet layout – Layout the carpet according to the seaming diagram. Carpet must be cut 3-4 inches longer than the area measurement. Where applicable, allow for pattern repeat. Align all carpet breadths to their proper position and trim seams.

13. Adhesive application – The floor adhesive must be spread uniformly over the subfloor with an appropriate trowel, leaving ridges of sufficient height to achieve full and complete coverage of the substrate and carpet backing, including penetration into the backing’s deepest recesses. Trowel notches wear down during use. Maintain a clean and properly notched trowel throughout the installation process. After sufficient open time, the carpet must be pressed into the adhesive and rolled with an appropriate roller as specified. Caution: Bond failure most often is caused by: inadequate adhesive application from incorrect trowel notch size and/or trowel notch configuration * improper adhesive selection or quality * incorrect open time * residual curing and parting compounds * moisture-related problem * premature traffic or cleaning before adhesives have adequately cured.

14. Open time – Appropriate open time varies depending upon environmental conditions, subfloor porosity, backing system and adhesive type. Refer to the adhesive manufacturer for recommendations regarding open time.

15. Seam adhesive (sealer) – An appropriate direct-glue seam adhesive must be applied to the edges trimmed for seaming and cover the thickness of both the primary and secondary backing without contaminating face yarns. The seam adhesive is applied to the cut edge of one side only, that side being the first one placed into the floor adhesive. When the edges are abutted to form the seam, and while the seam adhesive still is transferable, this seals the first edge as well as the second.

16. Rolling – After sufficient adhesive application and open time, the carpet must be pressed into the adhesive and rolled with an appropriate roller. Rolling must be performed with the lightest roller that achieves full and complete coverage of the substrate and carpet backing, including penetration into the backing’s deepest recesses.

17. All seams should be sealed with appropriate seam sealer. The roller to be used for direct glue should be no more than and no less than 75 lbs.

Double Glue Installation:

18. Relaxing/Condition carpet – Site conditions, environmental and ventilation conditions become even more important when performing double-glue-down installations. In double-glue installations, a separate cushion is adhered to the subfloor and the carpet is glued to the cushion.

19. Cushion installation – Cushion must be installed in the longest continuous lengths possible with consideration to traffic patterns and carpet seam placement. Cushion seams must be at a right angle (90 degrees) to carpet seams or offset at least six inches. Cushion seams must be butted without compression, leaving no gaps.

19.1  Make sure that the glue has time to off gas and set up. Tacky to the touch, but not transferred to the finger.

19.2 The recommended pad to be used for double stick installation is a 21lb. rubber slab pad or Healthier Choice pad – felt pads or wool pads are NOT recommended for this type of installation.

20. Carpet layout – Layout the carpet according to the seaming diagram. Carpet must be cut 3-4 inches longer than the area measurement. Where applicable, allow for pattern repeat. Align all carpet breadths to their proper position and trim seams. Care must be taken to avoid cutting into cushion under seams.

21. Trowel size for double glue installation, is as follows: Pad to floor using pressure sensitive glue is 1/16”x1/16”x1/16” square notch trowel. Carpet to pad with a smooth back carpet use a 1/8”x1/16”x1/8” U notch trowel. Carpet to pad with a rough back carpet use a 1/8”x3/16”x1/8” U notch trowel.

22. The proper roller recommended for a double glue installation is a 35-50 lb roller. Velvet carpet should be rolled in both directions. After 2-3 hours, the carpet should be rolled again.

On a double glue installation, it is recommended that you use a seaming iron, rather than not. If you are using the Kool Glide iron, make sure you cut the flange off of each side of the tape before using it.

23. Roll sequence – Sequence carpet cuts working from the longest measured repeat gradually down the shortest repeat within the dye lot. Roll sequencing information is available from the carpet manufacturer.

24. Pattern adjustment – Pattern adjustment during installation is possible and should be anticipated.

25. Pattern alignment – Match the pattern at the midpoint of the seams length. Work from the seam’s midpoint to the seam ends. Bring the pattern into register using appropriate tools that might include: power stretcher * knee kicker * dead man * “dry” line * stay nails * crab stretcher.

26. Curing adhesives – It is highly recommended that traffic over field-applied adhesive installations be restricted for a minimum of 24-48 hours to allow adhesives to cure properly. Premature trafficking can cause installation failure. Restrict carpet exposure to water from cleaning or other sources for a minimum of 30 days.

27. Materials for protection – If required to protect the finished floor covering from soil or paint, or if additional work is to be done after the installation, cover it with a non-staining building material paper. Protect the installation from rolling traffic by using sheets of hardboard or plywood in potentially affected area. Caution: Do not place plastic sheeting over any carpet installation because it may present a slip hazard and may leave residues that result in rapid soiling after removal. In addition, it may trap moisture, which may promote mold growth, and retard adhesive curing.

28. Maintain temperature – Do not allow the temperature of indoor carpeted areas to fall below 50 degrees F (10 degrees C), regardless of the age of installation.

** If you have any questions, please call NFIC at 770  720-4537 **

WOVEN CARPET CONSTRUCTION TERMS
WILTON – VELVET – AXMINSTER
PITCH = Number of ends in 27″ width
Most commonly known 252 – 216 – 189
252 = 9 1/3 ends per inch X 27
216 = 8 ends per inch X 27
189 = 7 ends per inch X 27
ROW = Number of wires or tufts per 1″ in warp direction
General range of 6 row minimum to 10 row maximum
PILE HEIGHT OR WIRE HEIGHT = Pile wires ranging from 1/8″ to 1/2″
FRAMES = This is the number of ends of face yarn in one reed dent
5 frames maximum on Wilton
8 frames maximum on Axminster
A frame is merely a position on the creel there are a maximum of 5 positions on a Wilton loom and 8 positions on a Axminster loom. The positions may be filled with any number of colors that are desirable to effectively color a design by planting one or more colors in these positions.
HEDDLES = These are carriers of yarn both face yarn and backing yarns to the point of where they are woven together. Controlled by cams. Heddles can be laced in such a manner along with alternating pile wires to create various surface textures and small geometric designs on Velvet looms.

The principles and practices of the above installation guide lines and installation instructions have been followed for over 50 years by NFIC.  We acknowledge these contributions in our industry by the following organizations:
NFIC, CFI, CRI, Carpet Cushion Council, Wools of New Zealand, Bloomsburg and Godfrey Hirst Carpet Mills.
If these guide lines are followed and not taken out of context, success will be achieved.
For synthetic carpet installation follow CRI 104 and 105 standards prior to commercial and residential installation (i.e Direct and Double glue as well as stretch-in-installation).